In Perú, the Andes Mountains have defined the country’s development, dividing the maps of Peru into three distinct regions: coastal, highlands, and jungle.
Political Map (*)
The stripped-down political map of Peru doesn’t provide many physical details, but it does give you a clear picture of Peru’s borders, neighboring countries, major cities, and rivers. Notable features on this map include the equator, running along the northernmost point of Peru, and the Amazon River. Three major Peruvian rivers—the Marañón, Huallaga, and Ucayali—join the Amazon in northeastern Peru. The Río Madre de Dios flows into Bolivia and across Brazil, where its name changes to Beni and Madeira respectively before joining the Amazon near Manaus.
Lima, the capital of Peru, sits near the midpoint of Peru’s Pacific coastline, dominating the coastal strip. The former Inca capital of Cusco is located inland, with the colonial city of Arequipa to the south and Lake Titicaca, which forms a part of the border between Peru and Bolivia, to the southeast.
Peru is divided into 25 administrative departments, which in turn are divided into provinces and districts. Each department has its own elected regional government, but political control is centralized in Lima.
Take note of the trend in department sizes. Moving inland, department areas tend to increase. This reflects a decrease in the density of the population as you move from west to east. For example, Loreto is the largest department and makes up the entire northeast region. However, it is mostly made up of jungle areas and the population is relatively low.
Vegetation Map (*)
Peru’s diverse landscape is clearly illustrated by a map of its vegetation. Along the coast, the yellow color represents mostly desert and scrubland. However in the northern coast of Peru, you’ll also find a tropical savanna, mangrove swamps, and dry forests. The brown color represents the highlands, which consist primarily of grasslands and alpine deserts. Unlike the dry coastal strip to the west of the Andes, which lies within a rain shadow area, the eastern foothills are green and lush. This area is known as the cloud forest or upland jungle, commonly referred to in Spanish as selva alta (high jungle) or ceja de selva (eyebrow of the jungle).
Further east is the vast lowland area of the Amazon Basin, a region of dense tropical rainforest, where riverboats are the main form of public transportation.
(*) FUENTE: https://www.tripsavvy.com/maps-of-peru-1619938